How Rental Property Owners Can Avoid the
Net investment Income Tax

What Is It?

The net investment income tax, or NIIT, is a hefty 3.8 percent tax on top of what you pay according to the tax table rates.

If you own a rental property, you're one of the NIIT's prime targets.

How Can This Affect You?

You pay the NIIT if:

  • your modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) exceeds $200,000 if you’re single, or $250,000 if you’re married filing jointly ($125,000 for married couples filing separately), and
  • you have net investment income.

Your MAGI for NIIT purposes is likely the same as your adjusted gross income (AGI), which equals your gross income less any above-the-line deductions. The tax code modifies the NIIT AGI only for certain U.S. citizens or residents who live abroad.

You pay the 3.8 percent NIIT on the lesser of

  • your net investment income, or
  • the amount your MAGI exceeds the applicable $200,000/$250,000 threshold.

Exemption No. 1: Real Estate Professionals

To qualify as a real estate professional, either you or your spouse (if you file jointly) must spend (1) over 50 percent of your work time in a real estate business or businesses and (2) over 750 hours working in real estate businesses during the year.

When it comes to rental property, tax-law-defined real estate professionals earn supreme status because they deduct their losses from non-rental income, and most likely qualify to have their profits escape the NIIT.

Thus, if you can achieve tax-law-defined real estate professional status, you have the best of all tax worlds: deductible losses and (most likely) profits that escape the NIIT.

You may have noted “most likely” in the sentence above. You overcome the “most likely” on the NIIT when your rental activity qualifies as a business for tax purposes.

In addition to being a real estate professional, you must materially participate in your rental activity to deduct your losses or qualify for the NIIT exemption. 

There are seven ways to establish material participation. The two most common are

  • doing all the work on the rental, or
  • working more than 100 hours on the rental and that’s more than any other individual works on the rental. 

There is one more hoop you must jump through for the NIIT exemption: Your rental activity must qualify as a business, not a mere investment activity, under IRC Section 162. Most rental activities are businesses even though they’re reported on Schedule E, but the legal tax definition is somewhat nebulous.

Exemption No. 2: Short-Term Rentals

You have a short-term rental when the average tenant stay is seven days or less, or when it is not more than 30 days and you provide services. The short-term rental is exempt from the tax-law-defined real estate professional rules. To deduct your losses on a short-term rental, you need to materially participate in the property.

You are subject to the NIIT on your short-term rental if (1) you materially participate and (2) the rental is a tax-code-defined business.

Exemption No. 3: Self-Rentals

Passive income from rental property that would otherwise be subject to the NIIT is recharacterized as non-passive if you rent the property to a business in which you materially participate. In other words, income from self-rentals is not included in net investment income.

Would you like to find out how your rentals interact with the NIIT? Click here to schedule an appointment with one of Gold Standard's seasoned tax accountant

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