The 105-HRA gives you the best possible medical reimbursement plan—if you can qualify. The first requirement is to have one employee only. The second requirement is to operate the business as one of the following:
To understand how this arrangement works, we are going to use the example of Henry.
Using a properly designed 105-HRA, Henry reimburses his employee-spouse $22,000 for medical expenses (health insurance, co-pays, other medical expenses not covered by insurance). Henry is in the 25 percent federal tax bracket, the 15.3 percent self-employment tax bracket, and the 8 percent state tax bracket. With the 105-HRA, Henry saves $10,626 in taxes this year and likely a similar amount every year he is in business. Why?
Henry operates his business as a proprietorship. Tax law does not consider proprietors to be employees for purposes of medical plans. This means there are no business deductions on the proprietorship tax return for Henry’s medical expenses. To overcome this impediment, Henry hires his spouse as his one and only employee.
The family health insurance plan is in Henry’s spouse’s name. This means the health insurance is not established in Henry’s business, and so he does not qualify for the self-employed health insurance deduction on page 1 of his Form 1040. With the 105-HRA, Henry creates tax deductions where none existed before.
Without his spouse as his employee qualifying for the 105-HRA, Henry as a proprietor would have to put the $22,000 of medical expenses on his tax return as itemized deductions, where they would
In Henry’s case, his net itemized medical deduction would have been $10,000, producing a net cash benefit of only $3,300—a far cry from the business deduction that gives Henry a net cash benefit of $10,626.
Your 105-HRA may reimburse the eligible employee for medical care expenses described in IRC Section 213(d). You find almost all of these expenses in IRS Publication 502, and that publication provides clarity on what you can and cannot reimburse.
Your 105-HRA may neither (a) reimburse a medical care expense incurred before the date the 105-HRA is in existence, nor (b) reimburse a medical care expense incurred before the date an employee first enrolls in the 105-HRA. This means if you qualify, you want your plan in place now.
The 105-HRA plan may reimburse the employee for expenses incurred for the medical care of:
One frequent IRS attack on the 105-HRA is that the spouse is not an employee and thus is not eligible for the 105-HRA. What does it take to prove that your spouse is an employee? Many tax pros like to use a W-2 with a small salary, say $1,000, to help establish employment.
Regardless of whether you pay a salary, you want any part-time spousal employee to submit a weekly time sheet showing the date, work description, and time spent on that work. The weekly work record is very important documentation.
Avoid using an employment contract. It’s a trap for most taxpayers because after a month or so the tasks performed no longer match the employment contract. Further, you don’t need the employment agreement to prove employment. The work-performed time record is far better proof of employment than an employment contract.
Have your spouse-employee pay all medical expenses from a separate personal checking account. If the proprietorship paid a medical expense directly, it’s best for the spouse to reimburse the proprietorship. The 105-HRA audit-proof system is to have the spouse pay all the medical expenses from his or her checking account.
The 105-HRA produces business deductions. You need to handle the reimbursement of the medical expenses in a businesslike manner. The tax code requires that you make sure your employee-spouse (or you with your C corporation) substantiates the medical expenses before being reimbursed.
Require your employee-spouse to submit expenses for reimbursement (or do so yourself through your C corporation) no less frequently than monthly.
Make sure you and your spouse sign and maintain a formal plan document.
The 105-HRA reimbursement is considered compensation to your spouse. Make sure you can prove that the total compensation paid to your spouse is reasonable. For example, if Henry’s spouse worked 500 hours, her hourly pay would equal $44 an hour ($22,000 ÷ 500). That’s $91,520 for a 2,080-hour full time worker.
Is that $44 an hour reasonable pay for the work done? If not, then either the hours worked or the amount reimbursed needs to change to ensure reasonableness.
See what pay rates apply for the type of work you have your employee-spouse doing. You can find such rates in newspaper articles, salary guides, and job postings. Print the documents containing proof, and put them in your tax file.
Don’t skimp on this documentation part.
Your 105-HRA plan can exclude:
Caution. Make sure your employee-spouse qualifies for plan coverage before implementing any discrimination rules. For example, don’t shoot yourself in the foot by using the part-time rule of less than 25 hours a week to exclude your new part-time employee when your spouse works 18 hours a week.
The Section 105 plan turns personal medical expenses into business deductions.
The plan, when designed for spouses, reimburses employee-spouses for family medical expenses, turning such reimbursements into business expenses deductible on the tax return as employee welfare benefits.
You cover your employee-spouse with family coverage, and that’s how you, the employer-spouse, get your coverage.
If you are single, don’t worry. You don’t have to get married to get the benefits of the Section 105 plan. Instead, you can create what amounts to a no-hassle solution by simply operating your business as a C corporation. The C corporation is a separate legal entity that can provide 105-HRA benefits when it has one eligible employee only (meaning that you are the only employee).
The 105-HRA, if fair compensation, can be the sole source of remuneration to your spouse. In a spouse-only operation, this eliminates the need for a payroll, which means no payroll tax payments or filings.
Still not sure if you qualify to use the 105-HRA? Click here to schedule an appointment with one of Gold Standard's seasoned tax accountants.
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